To be a thinking citizen demands being attuned to logical and statistical fallacies and the propaganda tricks of demagogues.

A rhetorically un-trained citizen is a patsy at the poker table of modern politics.

Logical Fallacies Statistical Fallacies Propaganda Tricks
Begging the Question  Data Omission     Code words
The Straw Man  Correlation and Causation


    Manipulative Images
The False Dilemma  Misleading aggregate data     Dog whistles
 Ad hominem  Survey question framing     Wedges
 Appeal to Emotion:

(spite, fear)

 Cherry picking     Old fashioned bold lies
Appeal to Authority Sampling errors     Camera angles
The Red Herring    Composition
Appeal to the Majority    Lighting
Moving the Goal Posts    Testimonials
Fallacy of Composition    Scapegoats
Moral high ground fallacy
Furtive fallacies
Hasty generalization/

Converse accident

Argumentum ad baculum

(might makes right,

appeal to consequences)

Post hoc, ergo propter hoc
Non sequitur


A fallacy does not prove a claim false. But its use does undermine it.

Swift quote on lies: falsehood flies and truth comes limping after it.

A lie travels halfway around the world while truth still putting on its shoes.

People remember the lie not so much the truth.