To be a thinking citizen demands being attuned to logical and statistical fallacies and the propaganda tricks of demagogues.
A rhetorically un-trained citizen is a patsy at the poker table of modern politics.
|Logical Fallacies||Statistical Fallacies||Propaganda Tricks|
|Begging the Question||Data Omission||Code words|
|The Straw Man|| Correlation and Causation
|The False Dilemma||Misleading aggregate data||Dog whistles|
|Ad hominem||Survey question framing||Wedges|
| Appeal to Emotion:
|Cherry picking||Old fashioned bold lies|
|Appeal to Authority||Sampling errors||Camera angles|
|The Red Herring||Composition|
|Appeal to the Majority||Lighting|
|Moving the Goal Posts||Testimonials|
|Fallacy of Composition||Scapegoats|
|Moral high ground fallacy|
|Argumentum ad baculum
(might makes right,
appeal to consequences)
|Post hoc, ergo propter hoc|
A fallacy does not prove a claim false. But its use does undermine it.
Swift quote on lies: falsehood flies and truth comes limping after it.
A lie travels halfway around the world while truth still putting on its shoes.
People remember the lie not so much the truth.